Essay on oxidation ponds

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High-rate anaerobic treatment of sewage using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket UASB reactors is a consolidated technology in warm climate countries. Nevertheless, since anaerobic treatment only removes organic carbon, post-treatment is required to remove nitrogen, besides residual organic carbon. Trickling filters TFs constitute a cost-effective post-treatment option, assuring low sludge production, low operational costs and maintenance simplicity compared to other post-treatment technologies e. Three main topics are addressed: i the development of trickling filters for UASB reactor effluent treatment, building on first experiences with TFs preceded by primary settlers; ii the design criteria, performance and empirical models for predicting the efficiency of TFs post-UASB reactors; and iii the future challenges associated with elimination of secondary settlers and nitrogen removal in sponge-bed trickling filters SBTFs.

The Importance Of Freshwater Resources Environmental Sciences Essay

Project Report on Water Pollution

The use of industrial effluent of irrigation purposes has been quite popular, particular from food processing industries, pharmaceutical industries, pulp and paper industries. While using the effluent for irrigation care should be taken that it should percolate into the field and do not create the problem of mosquito and fly breeding. The industrial wastes can be treated in oxidation ponds or lagoons and disposed of accordingly. The maximum quantity of effluent to be disposed off by this method depends on the effluent-holding capacity of soil, topography of land, crop, field area and climatic conditions etc. If more quantity of effluent is applied on the land, it may cause concentration of various constituents which may be deleterious to crop, decrease soil permeability and even contaminate the ground water table. Therefore, it is necessary to fix the maximum limit of certain constituents, in effluents, so that it should be at par with normal accepted irrigation water in quality.

KCSE Form 1 Chemistry Notes

At APEC, we strive to provide the best drinking water available to everyone. Even if it means offering a free system to those in need. Biochemical oxygen demand BOD is a measure of the quantity of oxygen used by microorganisms e. Natural sources of organic matter include plant decay and leaf fall. However, plant growth and decay may be unnaturally accelerated when nutrients and sunlight are overly abundant due to human influence.
Palais Paar, Vienna, Austria, ca. It was a rainy October day in and the Statue of Liberty was shrouded in a French flag. The weather was miserable and the ceremonial unveiling went poorly. The drapery was pulled off too soon right in the middle of a speech , and the fireworks display had to be canceled and rescheduled.

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